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Types of Batteries and Their Applications
Types of Batteries and Their Applications
A battery is a source of electrical energy, which is provided by one or more electrochemical cells of the battery after conversion of stored chemical energy. In today’s life, batteries play an important part as many household and industrial appliances use batteries as their power source.

Types of Batteries
Batteries can be divided into two major categories, primary batteries and secondary batteries. A primary battery is a disposable kind of battery. 
Once used, it cannot be recharged. Secondary batteries arerechargeable batteries. Once empty, it can be recharged again. This charging and discharging can happen many times depending on the battery type. Alkaline batteries, Mercury batteries, Silver-Oxide batteries, and Zinc carbon batteries are examples of primary batteries whereas Lead-Acid batteries and Lithium batteries fall into the secondary battery's category.



Alkaline Batteries
Alkaline batteries are non-rechargeable, high energy density, batteries that have a long life span. This battery obtained its name because the electrolyte used in it is alkaline (potassium hydroxide). The chemical composition features zinc powder as an anode and manganese dioxide as the cathode with potassium hydroxide as the electrolyte.

The chemical reactions are:

Zn (s) + 2OH− (aq) → ZnO (s) + H2O (l) + 2e−

2MnO2 (s) + H2O (l) + 2e− →Mn2O3 (s) + 2OH− (aq)

If we compare the capacity of an alkaline cell with a zinc-chloride cell of same size, the former can provide about four to five times more energy under equal load conditions. The supply voltage level decreases over time so the minimum required voltage level for a particular load may not match the supplied voltage level and thus results in no operation. But the rate of decline of alkaline batteries is lower than the Leclanche cell, thus longer life. The typical values of voltage and current supplied by a single alkaline cell are 1.5V and 700mA respectively. These batteries are distributed in various standard cylindrical shapes.

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